Osaka is the largest city in the Kansai region and third largest city in Japan after Tokyo. Osaka is home to one of Japan’s most vibrant food cultures. Known as the street food capital of Japan, Osaka offers amazing local food such as takoyaki and okonomiyaki.
There are plenty of things to do in Osaka from famous landmarks like Osaka Castle and Universal Studios Japan to many Osaka food tours, as well as explore trendy neighborhoods of Shinsaibashi, Dotonbori, and Amerikamura.
Osaka is very well-connected with the rest of Japan and the world. There is Kansai International Airport and Osaka International Airport, as well as shinkansen (bullet train) connecting Tokyo, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, and Nagoya, and Kyoto.
30 Best Things To Do In Osaka
1. Osaka castle
Osaka castle (Osakajo in Japanese) is one of the best things to do and see Osaka because it is one of the most famous historical attractions in Osaka and all of Japan, attracting thousands of tourists who come to visit each year.
Osaka Castle was built in o1583 under Toyotomi Hideyoshi ruler in the former site of the Ishiyama Honganji Temple, but was destroyed in 1615 by Tokugawa troops. It was rebuilt a few years later but its main tower was burned down by lightning in 1665. The tower was rebuilt in the early 19th century and had its major repair in 1997.
There are plenty of things to do and see in the castle grounds. This unique roof-shaped castle is Surrounded by thick rock walls, gates, Turrets, moats and the Nishinomaru Garden.
The Nishinomaru Garden offers a nice view of the castle tower below, and is home to hundreds of cherry trees and a tea house.
You can find a museum in the main tower and Osaka Castle Park covers about two square kilometers with lots of green space, Osakajo Jo Hall Multi-purpose arenal and a Toyotomi Hideyoshi shrine.
Spring and autumn are the best times to visit the castle and gardens because it is the time when the cherry blossoms, and the leaves turn red and dramatically change the view.
Osaka castle generally opens at 9:00am – 5:00pm everyday and it has extra hours during cherry blossom viewing and holidays. The ticket is 600 yên for adults and free for children under 15 years old.
To reach the castle, you can take the Osaka Loop Line train from Osaka station to Morinomiya Station, or Osakajokoen Station, as well as Chuo and Tanimachi Metro lines to Tanimachi Yonchome Station which is located within walking distance from Osaka castle.
2. Universal Studios Japan
Universal Studios Japan is one of the best things to do in Osaka because it is Japanmost visited amusement park after Tokyo Disney Resort. Universal Studios Japan was opened in 2001 and it was the first theme park in Asia built under Universal Studios.
The park has ten sections including Universal Wonderland, Super Nintendo World, WaterWorld, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, Minion Park, San Francisco, Hollywood, New York, Jurassic Park, and Amity Village.
The theme park offers many opportunities to take photos with sSnoopy, Hello Kitty, Muppets, and many other characters’ mascots.
You can try many amusement rides such as child friendly merry-go-rounds, and thrilling roller coasters.
The park has a Chinese restaurant in the San Francisco area and British style fish and chips in Harry Potter, as well as an American Graffiti hamburger restaurant in the Hollywood area.
There is a nearby shopping mall Universal Citywalk Osaka, offering opportunities to shop and dine. The Osaka Takoyaki Museum can be found on the fourth floor of the mall.
Universal Studios Japan is just a short train ride from Osaka Station, Shin-Osaka Station, and a half an hour from Kansai International Airport.
Tickets for Universal Studios Japan are 1 day pass for adults 7,315 yen, 2 day pass for adults 12,408 yen. There are also prices for children and seniors. Open times vary by season but the park is open every day from 8.30 / 9:30 am to 7:00 / 9:00 pm.
Dotonbori Street runs along the Dōtonbori canal from Dōtonboribashi Bridge to Nipponbashi Bridge. It is the most famous attraction in Osaka and is one of the best things to do in Osaka and the whole Kansai region.
Dotonbori is an entertainment and shopping street, known for its extravagant neon lights and the enormous variety of restaurants, teahouses, and bars.
Dotonbori’s history dates back to 1612, when Yasui Doton invested in a project to convert the Umezu River into a canal system connecting Umezu to the Kizugawa River.
His work was interrupted by war and his death in 1615. Doton’s cousins finalized the canal and named it Dotonbori, meaning Doton Canal in the same year.
The canal brough trade to the area, and with its trading increase, it became an entertainment district, with lots of theaters and playhouses on canal’s south bank.
But all the theathers was destroyed by bombing in World War II except for the Shochikuza. Today, Dotonbori is better known as a gastronomic area with lots of restaurants, street food stalls, and bars.
You can take a stroll along the pedestrian walkways or take a cruise along its length. Look for iconic Glico Running Man neon signs, which has been a Dotonbori staple since 1935, as well as Kani Doraku and Kuidaore Taro neon signs.
You can also eat, learn about and make Takoyaki at the Konamon Museum. Shop everything at discount prices at Don Quijote Dotonbori, recognizable by its Ferris wheel.
Take a look at the Ebisubashi bridge, which is a popular meeting spot, also offers access to Ebisu Shrine, Shinsaibashi-suji and Ebisubashi-suji shopping areas.
Osaka is a place for foodies, you can eat till you drop in Dotonbori. Some of the most popular restaurants in Dotonbori area are:
- Kani Douraku is a crab restaurant, recognized by the huge moving crab signage on its shopfront.
- Hariju has had Japanese beef shabu shabu and sukiyaki in Dotombori since 1948.
- Kukuru, specializing in takoyaki octopus dumplings.
- Zubora-ya, specializing in fugu or pufferfish.
Dotombori is well-connected to public transport, you can easily reach by trains. It is located close to Namba Station on the Nankai and Kintetsu Railways.
4. Osaka Local Food
Osaka is a famous destination for foodies. There is an expression Osaka no kuidaore, meaning eating till you drop. Must try local specialties are okonomiyaki, takoyaki, yakiniku, fugu, and kushikatsu.
- Okonomiyaki is a savory pancake made from eggs, flour, shredded cabbage, as well as pork, squid, shrimp, and cheese. The dressing is Japanese mayonnaise, nori seaweed, and bonito flakes. Mizuno in Dotonbori is a famous restaurant for Okonomiyaki.
- Takoyaki is a ball that is a batter or eggs and flour filled with octopus, spring onions, ginger, and tempura crumbs. Aizuya is the shop where takoyaki was first invented.
- Fugu is a Japanese term for puffer fish. You can find fugu food at Zuboraya in Shinsekai area.
- Yakiniku is barbecued beef. You can try Yakiniku at Ajiyoshi in Tsuruhashi, which is a Korea Town in Osaka.
- Kushikatsu is skewered kebabs of breaded, deep-fried meat and vegetables. You can try kushikatsu at Kushikatsu Daruma in Dotonbori and Shinsekai areas.
There is so much food to eat in Osaka, and don’t miss these delicious local foods.
5.Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan
Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan is one of the largest aquariums in the world, located in Tempozan Harbor Village, near Osaka Bay. You should spend at least two hours exploring marine habitats due to the aquarium’s huge size.
The aquarium is divided into 15 zones which are arranged in a spiral start from Japan forest to Pacific Ocean. Each zone represents a different marine ecosystem from around the world, including the Pacific Ocean, the Antarctic, and the Great Barrier Reef.
The aquarium is a popular destination for families due to its variety of educational programs and activities for children. Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan has a number of interactive exhibits, such as touch tanks where visitors can pet small sharks and rays, and a virtual reality experience that allows visitors to dive into the ocean and explore marine life up close.
Opening hours vary by season, but normally from 10:00 to 20:00. Tickets are 2,300 yen for adults, free for children, and discount for seniors.
Nearby, you can explore the Tempozan Harbor Village with its Tempozan Marketplace shopping mall and Naniwa Kuishinbo Yokocho food hall. You can take a Santa Maria which is a duplicated version of Christopher Columbus’ boat when exploring the Americas.
The Tempozan Ferris Wheel is located in the Tempozan Harbor Village. It is one of the biggest ferris wheels in the world. You can take a ride here.
Shinsekai, or ‘New World’, is an interesting neighborhood in Osaka, located west of Tennoji Park. It is home to the famous Tsutenkaku Tower, and has a good collection of cheap restaurants, dive bars.
There are many fugu restaurants in Shinsekai but Zuboraya is the most famous. When in Shinsekai district, you must try Kushikatsu (deep-fried skewers), one of the best known specialties of Osaka.
Janjan Yokocho is a covered shopping arcade that is home to bargain clothing stores, souvenir shops, pinball parlors, and lots of cheap eateries.
Tsutenkaku Tower was built in 1912 after the Eiffel Tower in Paris. It was reconstructed in 1956 after destroyed by bombing in the WWII. The tower has an observatory and open-air deck offers views of the city.
You can also find Spa World, with a Asian-themed floor and European-themed floor and an. Enjoy natural hot spring water, and it is naked.
Shinsekai is also home to a number of museums and galleries, including the Shinsekai History Museum and the Tsutenkaku Museum, which offers interactive exhibits about the history of the neighborhood.
If you’re visiting Osaka, Shinsekai is definitely worth a visit for its unique atmosphere and cultural experiences.
Shinsaibashi is a shopping and entertainment district in the heart of Osaka. The neighborhood is one of the must-see in Osaka due to its bustling atmosphere, trendy stores, and many dining and entertainment venues.
Mido-suji is the main street in Shinsaibashi which is a pedestrian-only street lined with department stores, boutiques, and restaurants.
You can find Mitsuteru Temple, located off the busy Midosuji street. The temple was dedicated to the Shingon sect of Buddhism.
Running east to Mido-Suji Avenue, starting from Ebisu Bridge in Dotonbori, stands Shinsaibashi-Suji Shopping Street, a famous 600 met long shopping area in Osaka.
Shinsaibashi has a long history dating back to the Edo Period. The street is lined with traditional kimono tailors, western clothing, jewelers, cosmetics stores, restaurants and fast food outlets. You can explore the area by strolling along the neighborhood as well as window-shopping.
Amerikamura is named after its proximity to the U.S. Consulate, located to the west of Shinsaibashi. Also known as American Village due to the influence of American culture on the area.
Amemura is a popular hangout spot for trendy youths due to its American-style boutiques and shops, and international bars with low prices.
American Village has indie boutiques and thrift stores, as well as weekend Flea markets with its street performances.
Amerikamura is a great place to experience the fusion of Japanese and Western culture.
12. Umeda Sky Building
Umeda Sky Building is a very shiny high-rise skyscraper of glass and steel located north of Osaka Station. The Umeda Sky Building is located just 11 minutes walk north of Osaka Station.
Designed by Hiroshi Hara, a prominent Japanese architect, the Sky Building was completed in 1993. Umeda Sky Building consists of two separate towers and are connected by the bridge at a height of 170 meters .
The Sky Building is also home to gardens, restaurants, a cinema, and observation deck. Floating Garden Observatory is located 173 meters above ground level, offering sweeping views over the city.
Floating Garden Observatory is reachable by entering the East Tower and taking an elevator from the 3rd to the 35th floor, then transferring to an escalator to the 39th floor of the West Tower, which is where you can buy a ticket to the Sky Walk.
13. Sennan Long Park
Sennan Long Park is located close to Kansai International Airport, offering a great beach life with a variety of amenities and stunning views. It is close to Tarui Southern Beach and Sennan Marble Beach.
Sennan Long Park has four separate zones including the Community Area, Market Area, Activity Area, and Glamping Area, providing sports, food, and leisure.
The park has beautiful gardens, including the Sennan Iris Garden, the Sennan Rose Garden, and the Sennan Peony Garden. These gardens are especially beautiful in the spring and early summer, when the flowers are in bloom.
14. Namba Yasaka Shrine
Namba Yasaka Shrine (Namba Yasaka-jinja in Japanese) is located within easy walking distance from busy Nankai Station, and the Namba Parks shopping complex.
Namba Yasaka is known for its lion-shaped stage, and beautiful cherry blossom trees dotted around the shrine.
The lion’s head stage was built in 1975, with 11 meters wide and 12 meters high. Its mouth to swallow evil spirits and bring good luck for school students and business. The shrine is busier during exam time or during important times of the financial year.
The shrine’s annual festival is held on the third Sunday of January. You can watch a Tug-of-War Ritual, to celebrate the enshrined deity, Susano-ono-Mikoto, who freed the people from hardship and killed the serpent god Yamata-no-orochi.
The shrine is also a popular place to visit during the New Year’s celebrations, when it is decorated with lanterns and other decorations. It opens daily 6:00 – 17:00 and is free to enter.
15. Tea Ceremony
The Tea Ceremony in Osaka is a traditional Japanese cultural experience to learn the background of the tea ceremony and Japanese culture.
During a tea ceremony, you will be able to observe the preparation and presentation of the matcha tea. You will learn about the history and cultural significance of the tea ceremony, as well as the proper way to prepare and drink the tea.
In Osaka, you can find a number of places where you can experience the tea ceremony, including traditional tea houses, traditional Japanese inns (ryokan), and cultural centers, such as the Osaka School of Tea and the Urasenke Chado Research Center.
Some places also offer experiences wearing kimono, Japanese sweets making, calligraphy, cloth wrapping, and Japanese traditional cooking.
16. Bar Hopping
Bar hopping in Osaka can be a fun and exciting way to experience the nightlife. Bar Hopping or bar Crawling is a unique and special way to explore bars, family-run pubs, restaurants and izakayas in Osaka along tiny backstreet alleyways at night .
During bar hopping, you can visit multiple bars or pubs in a single night. It is an ideal activity for street food lovers and party goers.
It’s easy to get carried away while bar hopping, just be sure to drink responsibly and plan ahead for a safe and enjoyable experience.
17. Abeno Harukas
Abeno Harukas is the tallest building in Japan, located above Osaka Abenobashi Station. It is also within walking distance from Osaka Municipal Museum of Fine Art, Tennoji Park, and Tennoji Zoo.
The skyscraper is a 62 story building that is home to observation decks, a hotel, a museum, and a department store.
You can buy a ticket for the Harukas 300 Observatory on the 16th floor. It is 1,500 yen for adults and different prices for children depending on their age. Harukas 300 Observatory offers 360 degree panoramic views over the city.
There is a souvenir shop, a children’s playground and a café area on the 59th floor, as well as a restaurant and bar on the 58th floor.
Abeno Harukas is also home to tThe Abeno Harukas Art Museum where you can view works of Hokusai, Matisse, and Studio Ghibli, Japanese traditional and contemporary and Western art.
You can find a Rooftop Garden on the 16th floor, Osaka Marriott Miyako Hotel, and the Abeno Harukas Kintetsu Main Store with plenty of shops and restaurants.
18. Kuromon Market
Kuromon Market is one of the best things to do in Osaka because it is a foodie haven. This 600 meters covered public market dates back to the Edo Period, runs parallel to Sakaisuji Dori Street in the Minami district.
Kuromon Market is well-connected to the train system. It is located within walking distance from Nipponbashi Station and Namba Station.
There are 150 shops selling fish, meat, traditional sweets, as well as homeware and clothes and. It is a great place to try different street foods including yakitori, sushi, eel, sea urchin, crab, and takoyaki.
Kuromon Market can get crowded. It is packed with small restaurants and stalls selling small portions, making it a great place to enjoy eating as you walk or Japan’s tabe-aruki culture.
With its lively atmosphere and delicious food, Kuromon Market is a popular destination for both tourists and locals alike, and is known for. The market is open daily from early morning until late at night.
19. Shitennoji Temple
Shitennoji Temple is one of the best things to do in Osaka because this Buddhist temple is one of the oldest temples in Japan. Built in 593 by Prince Shotoku, it was reconstructed due to the damage during the war.
Shitennoji Temple is an enjoyable place to explore the spiritual vibe. It is located close to Shitennoji-mae Yuhigaoka Station and Tennoji Station.
You can explore the outer temple grounds for free, but there is a fee for entering the inner temple complex (Chushin Garan). There are five-storied pagodas, Gokuraku-jodo Garden, and a treasure house.
If you visit on the 21st and 22nd of each month, you can join a large flea market. There are more than 300 stalls selling antiques, ceramics, second hand clothes, and tasting typical Osaka foods like okonomiyaki, sweet manju bun, and takoyaki.
On the 14th of January, Shitennoji Temple held the Doya Doya festival. You can watch young boys wearing only loincloths showered with cold water while running into the Rokujireisando prayer hall.
20. Osaka Tennoji Zoo
Osaka Tennoji Zoo is one of the best things to do in Osaka for families with children because the Zoo has 1,000 animals of different species from red pandas to lions and penguins.
Tennoji Park was built in 1909 on the site of the former Fifth National Industrial Exhibition. In 1915, Tennoji Zoo was added to the park and it was the third zoo in Japan after Ueno and Kyoto zoos.
There is admission to enter the park, 500 yen for an adult and free for preschool children. The Zoo opens 9.30 -1 7:00 daily except Monday.
Tenshiba is a part of the park and it is a popular picnic with children’s playground and futsal court. It is surrounded with shops, restaurants, and cafes.
You can relax at Keitakuen Garden that was designed by Jihei Ogawa, a famous Meiji era landscape architect . It has a large pond, pavilion, and bridges.
There is also an ancient burial mound Chausuyama to the north of the park, as well as Osaka City Museum of Fine Arts to learn history of fine arts.
21. Osaka Expo Park
Osaka Expo Park is a great place to spend a day exploring the outdoors and learning about Japanese culture. Osaka Expo Park, also known as Expo 70 Commemorative Park, was built on the site of the 1970 World Exposition.
It is a huge park with 264 hectares that provides plenty of things to do and see such as parks, museums, and entertainment facilities.
Most important attractions are centered around the northern part of the park, which is divided with the southern by a railway line.
On the northern section of the park, you can find the Japan Folk Crafts Museum, National Museum of Ethnology, and Osaka Museum of Natural History, as well as the Natural and Cultural Gardens, Japanese Garden,
The southern sections of the park are home to Expo City, Ferris Wheel, and a soccer stadium.
The park also hosts a variety of events and festivals throughout the year, including music concerts, food festivals, and cultural events.
22. Baseball Games
Along with Sumo, baseball is a very popular sport in Japan. Watching baseball games is a must-do for baseball lovers to experience Japanese culture and see a different style of play compared to your country.
Osaka is home to the Orix Buffaloes, a professional baseball team that competes in Nippon Professional Baseball, the highest level of baseball in Japan.
You must visit the Osaka Kyocera Dome, which is the mecca of professional baseball and high school baseball. You can try food that is only found in the stadium.
23. Hirakata Park
Hirakata Park is one of the best things to do and see in Osaka, especially with kids, because this amusement park has a range of attractions for couples and families of all ages from Crazy Mouse to the wooden roller coaster. It is also a cheaper alternative to Universal Studios.
The park was opened in 1910, with more than 40 attractions on its hilly landscape.
In winter, the park has an illumination event and in summer months, there is a swimming pool. The Rose Garden is a place to relax after a thrilling ride.
Located close to Osaka and Kyoto, easily reached from the Keihan Railway. The park has plenty of restaurants, as well as McDonald’s and Magical Lagoon Kitchen.
For each ride, you have to pay separately by purchasing a card. There is also an unlimited All Access Pass if you want to try everything from the park.
24. Street Go-Karting Tour
Street go-karting is a popular tour in Osaka to see famous sites along the way such as Dōtonbori, Namba, Tsūtenkaku Tower, Osaka Station, and Osaka Castle Park.
You can book go-kart online and it is a fun way to see the city, wear your favorite character’s costume for a wonderful photo, and enjoy unforgettable times with family and friends.
It is important to follow all safety guidelines and traffic laws. You should wear a helmet and protective gears, and follow the instructors at all times. The driver must be over 18 years old and have a driver’s license valid in Japan such as a Japanese SOFA license or an International Driver’s Permit.
25. Pokemon Cafe Osaka
If you’re a fan of Pokemon, you can consider visiting the Pokemon-themed Cafe, which is a fun and unique way to experience the city.
The first permanent Pokemon Cafe in Osaka was opened in 2019 on the 9th floor of Daimaru Shinsaibashi Department Store in Shinsaibashi neighborhood. It is the second Pokémon-themed cafe in Japan after Tokyo.
On the same floor of the Pokemon cafe is the Pokemon Center DX Osaka. There are three Pokemon characters at the doorway of Pokemon Center DX Osaka including Articuno, Zapdos, and Moltres.
At Pokemon Cafe in Osaka, you can choose many Pikachu and other Pokémon character-themed dishes. It is a 90-minute table time limit.
Pokémon Cafe is easily reachable because it is located beside Osaka Metro’s Shinsaibashi Station from Umeda Station’s Midosuji Line on the Osaka Metro.
26. Mozu Tombs
Mozu Tombs (formally Mozu-Furuichi Kofungun) are one of the best things to see in Osaka because they are ancient tombs in the Mozu area of Sakai City, which has been a Cultural World Heritage Site since 2019.
There are 44 old burial mounds that date back to the 4th and 5th century. There is the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, tomb of Emperor Richu, and Nisanzai Tombs.
Emperor Nintoku is one of the three largest tombs in the world after the Mausoleum of the first Qin Emperor of China, and the pyramid of King Kufu in Egypt.
You can observe the tomb of Emperor Nintoku at the observation area on the 21st floor of Sakai City Hall.This 80m height observation also offers stunning views of the city.
You can also learn history at the Sakai City Museum in Daisen Park. It has exhibitions and artifacts to show the history of the Mozu-Furuichi Tumuli.
While in Sakai, you must visit Shinan Sakai City Tea Room and try matcha tea because Saki is the birthplace of the creator of the Senke School of tea ceremony, Sen no Rikyu. The tea ceremony originated here.
27. Minoh Waterfall
Minoh Waterfall is located in forested valley Minoo Park, less than a 30 minutes train ride from downtown Osaka, Umeda. Minoh Waterfall is open to the public free of charge.
Minoo Park is one of the oldest National parks. It is a great place to see the fall foliage season to see the beautiful Japanese red maple.
To reach Minoh Waterfall, you can start from a hiking path along the river, located within walking distance from North of Minoh Station.Be sure to wear comfortable shoes as the walk is long.
Along the way you will pass Momiji tempura, and Minoh-san Ryuan-ji Temple, which was founded by legendary mystic En no Gyoja.
28. Hoshida Park
Hoshida Park is famous for being home of the famous Hoshi-no-Buranko Bridge. The park is set in the northern part of the Ikoma Mountains spanning Osaka and Nara borders .
Hoshi-no-Buranko is one of the largest wooden-floor suspension bridges in the country. It is most beautiful during the fall foliage season.
There is a rock climbing wall in the park, which is ideal for both professional and small kids.
29. Tenjin Matsuri Festival
Tenjin Matsuri Festival takes place on July 24 and 25 each year. It is one of the largest festivals in Japan along with the Gion Matsuri of Kyoto and Kanda Matsuri of Tokyo and.
The festival started in the 10th century to honor the deity of scholarship and learning, Sugawara Michizane. You can view a beautiful display of fireworks over the Okawa River.
July 24 is a ritual at the Tenmangu Shrine, next is a ceremony at the river to pray for prosperity and peace for Osaka. On the 25th of July, there is a procession from Tenmangu Shrine to the Okawa River.
30. Winter Illuminations
The winter illuminations are one of the many popular attractions in Osaka. Osaka’s winter illuminations have many illuminations but there are two main events, Midosuji Illumination and Osaka Hikari Renaissance.
In the Midosuji Illumination, approximately four kilometers on Osaka’s main street from Umeda to Naniwa will be lit up from November 3 to December 31, 2022.
Osaka Hikari Renaissance is an illumination art event in the waterfront of Nakanoshima between Osaka City Hall and Nakanoshima Park.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the unique things to do in Osaka?
There are many unique things to do in Osaka including visiting Universal Studios Japan, Osaka Castle, Dotonbori, as well as the Osaka Aquarium, and Osaka Museum of Natural History.
What are the best things to do in Osaka in winter?
Some of the best things to do in Osaka in winter include visiting the Osaka Castle, Universal Studios Japan, trying local foods such as takoyaki and okonomiyaki, and shopping at the Tenjinbashisuji Shotengai shopping street.
What are the best things to do in Osaka with your family?
Some of the fun things to do in Osaka with your family are the Universal Studios Japan, Osaka Castle, Osaka Aquarium, a boat tour of the Osaka Bay, shopping at the Shinsaibashi and Namba, and trying local foods like takoyaki and okonomiyaki.
- Where to stay in Osaka First Time
- Where to stay in Osaka for Nightlife
- Where to stay in Osaka with Family
- How many days in Osaka is enough?
- How to Say Hello in Japanese?
- Where to stay in Japan first time
So you have it. The 30 best things to do and see in Osaka for your next trips. If you enjoyed my post, please leave a comment below.